|Blend||Saying the individual sounds that make up a word and then merging or blending the sounds together to say the word – used when reading.|
|Consonant||Most letters of the alphabet (excluding the vowels: a,e,i,o,u).|
Abbreviation used for consonant-vowel-consonant words, used to describe the order of sounds.
Some examples of CVC words are: cat, pen, top
Other similar abbreviations include:
Two letters which together make one sound, e.g. ee, oa, ea, ch, ay.
There are several different types of digraph:
|Grapheme||Written letters or a group of letters which represent one single sound (phoneme), e.g. a, l, sh, air, ck.|
|Letters and Sounds|
A Government document detailing the teaching of phonics. There are 6 phases described:
Phase 1: This is split into 7 aspects, which focus on hearing and talking about environmental sounds and letter sounds.
Phase 2: Learning 19 letters of the alphabet, along with the first 5 tricky words and using them to read and spell simple words and captions.
Phase 3: Learning the remaining letters of the alphabet, some 2 and 3 letter digraphs, along with the next set of trick words.
Reading and writing captions and sentences.
Phase 4: Learning to blend and segment longer words, including words with adjacent consonants and more than one syllable. Reading and writing using these and the next tricky words, within sentences.
Phase 5: Learning alternative spellings and pronunciations for phonemes, including their common usage within words. Reading and writing using these and the next tricky words, within sentences.
Phase 6: Learning longer words and spelling rules.
|Phoneme||A single sound that can be made by one or more letters (graphemes), e.g. s, k, z, oo, ph, igh.|
|Pure sound||Pronouncing each letter sound clearly and distinctly without adding additional sounds to the end, e.g. ‘ffff’ not ‘fuh.|
|Segment||This is the opposite of blending (see above). Splitting a word up into individual sounds – used when spelling and writing.|
|Tricky words||Words that are difficult to sound out, e.g. said, the, because.|
|Trigraph||Three letters which go together make one sound, e.g. ear, air, igh, dge, tch.|
|Vowel||The letters a, e, i, o, u.|